Researchers develop methods for measuring free-base nicotine levels in e-cigarettes

Researchers at Portland State University have developed methods for measuring levels of free-base nicotine in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids and vapor, the levels of which are associated with harshness upon inhalation of e-cigarette vapors and tobacco smoke. The study presents the results of analyses of 11 commercially available flavors of e-cigarette liquids from brands including […]

What causes pale gums?

Causes and symptoms Anemia Leukoplakia Menopause Oral lichen planus When to see a doctor Tips for healthy gums Outlook Pale gums may indicate that a person has anemia, which is often the result of an iron deficiency. However, if the gums are white or painful, the cause may be more serious. Healthy gums should be […]

Quitting cigarettes linked to better lung health than long-term light smoking

Long-term light smokers appear to be at greater risk for lung function decline, emphysema and obstructive lung disease than heavy smokers who quit, according to new research presented at the ATS 2018 International Conference. Researchers analyzed data collected over 30 years from 3,140 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. […]