Report establishes framework to identify microorganisms that could become global pandemic

Infectious disease preparedness work focuses predominantly on an historical list of pathogens derived from biological warfare agents, political considerations, and recent outbreaks. That fails to account for the most serious agents not currently known or without historical precedent, write scholars from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security in a new report on the traits […]

Virus genes from city pond rescue bacteria

A key question in evolutionary biology is how new functions arise. New research at Uppsala University, Sweden, shows that bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) can contribute to new functions by revealing hidden potential in their bacterial hosts. Bacteriophages are the most numerous organisms on Earth (about 1031). Every day, they infect and kill 15-30 % […]

Common nipple problems and their causes

Symptoms Causes of common nipple problems Ectasia Intraductal papilloma Galactorrhea Lactational mastitis Paget disease of the breast Other causes When to see a doctor How are nipple problems diagnosed? Treatment Ectasia Intraductal papilloma Galactorrhea Lactational mastitis Paget disease of the breast Prevention Outlook Discharge, pain, and itching are common nipple problems that can affect anyone. […]

Can you have flare-ups of osteoarthritis?

What are the symptoms of a flare-up? Triggers Injury to the joint Further breakdown of the joint Emotional stress Environmental changes Other health conditions What are the treatment options? Medication and medical treatment Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) Hot and cold therapy Stress management Balance rest and activity Assistive devices When to see a doctor […]