In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (Special Issue on Stable Ischemic Heart Disease, Volume 3,Number 3, 2019, pp. 305-315(11); DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/CVIA.2019.0006 Nida Waheed, Nicholas Kaufman, Jonathon Seawright and Ki Park from the University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA considers ischemic heart disease in women.
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and death among women. Our knowledge of ischemic heart disease has grown tremendously over the past few decades as sex differences in prevalence, presentation, and pathophysiology are increasingly being recognized. Women with ischemic heart disease have less coronary atherosclerosis than men. Coronary endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease have been proposed as important mechanisms that contribute to the cause and prognosis of ischemic heart disease in women. This article outlines sex-specific issues in ischemic heart disease, including prevalence, prognosis, pathophysiology, traditional and nontraditional risk factors, screening, and diagnostic testing, as well as management strategies.