Concussion : "The

Concussion : “The world of sport has not taken the measurement of risk “

In 2016, after a final of the Top 14 rugby “extreme violence” during which several players were put K.-O

, Pr Jean Chazal, who launched the alert on the dangers of concussions.

Two years later, the neurosurgeon organized on Friday 9 and Saturday 10 November in Clermont-Ferrand, an international congress on these injuries are often invisible, and their consequences on the health of the players. For the first time in France, several sports federations concerned to participate. .LE FIGARO.

– Why have you organised this conference? Pr Jean CHAZAL.

– The idea is to raise awareness in the world of sports because it has not yet taken the measure of the risk incurred by athletes.

More than 400 scientific articles were selected and reviewed in preparation of the symposium. We make an overview of the knowledge on concussions, focusing on the conditions required to allow a return to the field.

In fact, we see far too often athletes commotionnés return prematurely to competition or training. It is very dangerous. I think back for example to that player during the world Cup of football, which had been wounded in the head and lost consciousness on the field. No action has been taken since it was reviewed on the field three days later for the next game. It should have been put to rest. What is a concussion? “The accumulation of concussions increases the risk (. ..


.) of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s” Pr Jean Chazal concussion is a shaking of the brain within the skull, which occurs as a result of a direct shock or a movement too violent, from the head to the rear or the front. This happens in case of acceleration or deceleration very powerful, for example on a motorcycle or in a tackle at rugby. A head weighs more than 2 kg and the guardian of cervical is not always enough tonic to contain the movement. The problem is that the concussion is not always easy to diagnose. Clinically, there is no doubt, in the event of a loss of knowledge. But, in most cases, the victim is simply “blown”. The symptoms are varied: balance disorders, memory, attention and concentration, irritability, headaches. They may manifest themselves during several days. It is imperative to conduct tests of balance and cognitive to verify.

What can be the consequences for the wounded? The repetition of this type of trauma is extremely deleterious. The accumulation of concussions increases the risk of encephalopathy, chronic post-traumatic stress disorder at a distance, that is to say, neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s.

The interindividual variations are important because of the existence of genetic factors predisposing or protective.

It is important to know that children and adolescents are more sensitive because the whole of their body, particularly their musculoskeletal system and their brain is not mature yet. According to some studies, concussions in childhood may be related to decreases in IQ. . Women are also more fragile.

“The prevention and diagnosis of concussions involve a real education of staffs” Pr Jean Chazal What are the sports involved? All sports, individual or collective, which carry a risk of blows, falls or sudden changes of speed.

We can mention the boxing in the first place, but also rugby, horse riding, motorcycling, hockey, skiing, football, judo. .. .. The handball players are also at risk, with shocks in head to head or against a ball launched at a short distance. It should be aware that concussions also occur in the context of an amateur. Which generates the risk, it is the example. Education comes from the idols. Parents must choose a club seriously, which has taken the measure of the challenge. The prevention and diagnosis of concussions involve a real education of staffs. What do you recommend? To the extent that concussions are unavoidable in some sports, it is necessary to be particularly vigilant on the conditions of the return-to-play. The scientific studies are formal: he must prevent the athlete commotionné to resume its activity until it presents symptoms. In children, the sport will be resumed after the school, when the child is capable of learning as before. But, as it is not yet known to measure the sensitivity of a given individual to a concussion, it is still difficult to determine that a player needs to stop. Especially as the financial pressure in the professional environment is strong.

More generally, it would be necessary to question the use of supplements and “therapeutic” which explains the incredible increase of templates.

Twenty extra pounds, it is twenty kilos of muscle! However, the brain, the heart, the kidneys have not increased them. They are subjected to physical forces increasingly important.

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