Preprints spread to more fields of research 2018-02-13 To publish his research as a so-called preprints before peer review and publication, everyday life in certain fields
The phenomenon – which some scientists see as essential and others as unnecessary or unthinkable – is now being spread to more areas. – We always put up a preprint at the same time that we are submitting to a journal for publication. It is a way to get the results quickly, before the competitors. The process of Peer review can take several months, ” says Torsten Åkesson, professor of particle physics at Lund university.
A preprint is a scientific text that have not yet undergone peer review, peer review, for publication in, for example, a scientific journal.
The definition however, can vary between disciplines.
The concept is not new – researchers have long aired artikelmanus between themselves in different ways – but it has in recent years gained wider dissemination. In physics, the phenomenon of a lift already in the year 1991.
In order to facilitate the discussions of the artikelmanus created when the particle physicist Paul Ginsparg archive of preprintartiklar, now known as Arxiv. The server quickly grew in popularity and is now accepting articles, also in other fields of physics, mathematics, statistics and computer science, among others. To upload is free and the text is freely available. Before the text is laid out certain controls, like the content is scientific research, but no peer review. Arxiv contains over 1.3 million items and is operated by Cornell University in New York.
Preprints are cited extensively and Google Scholar ranks one of the departments within the Arxiv as number 21 of all scientific journals.
The majority of the articles that are uploaded will be published later in a journal. Reach out snabbareEftersom research, reach out faster, preprints bringing the field faster, ” says Anders Eklund, senior lecturer in medical informatics at Linköping university. In his research he analyzed the various softwares used in studies of brain activity. He came to the conclusion that several softwares counted wrong and published the results as a preprint before they are submitted to a journal. – They spread quickly and there were discussions in social media and via mailing lists.
We had done the analyses with the data available on the net, and before the article was published in a magazine, had one of the software manufacturers verified our results, and changed its method for them, ” says Anders Eklund. To lay out, preprints are today, of course, Anders Eklund. In addition to the speed he’ll see preprints as a possible free form of open access. The researcher can update the original preprint of the article when the manuscript is accepted by a journal, and so do the peer reviewed the article freely available. Such an update is allowed, however, not all of the journals. Quite tillförlitligaArtklar that have undergone peer review are more reliable than preprints, notes Anders Eklund. Nevertheless, he believes that the preprints is generally quite reliable because the scientists put their names on the manuscript. – If there are obvious flaws, researchers can lose in reputation.
Are those who publish unknown, it is difficult to rely on the results. When it comes to research in particle physics can preprints sometimes be as reliable as the peer-reviewed articles, says Torsten Åkesson. – Thanks to the extensive internal ex-ante control has preprints from the major international experimentsamarbetena in particle physics the same reliability as the peer-reviewed, published articles. Experiment with a few participating scientists and theoretical works, without a corresponding organisation of ex-ante control, by contrast, can sometimes go through extensive changes during the peer review. Become more common in the livsvetenskapernaInom biology and medicine is the use of preprints is not as widespread as in physics. But the phenomenon got a huge boost in 2013 when the server Biorxiv, for preprints in biology and life sciences, was started by the research institution, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL). The database has grown rapidly and today contains nearly 20,000 preprints. Recently tillkännagjordes a collaboration between Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the open access publisher Public Library of Science, PLOS, which means that artikelmanus submitted to PLOS journals automatic can be posted on Biorxiv.
This development welcomes Jessica Polka, president of the investigator-driven initiative AsapBio.
She sees great benefits with the rapid communication preprints can give and want to increase the use of them in the life sciences.
– Researchers are used to exchange information with each other before the peer review, meetings and poster presentations, for example. Preprints are an extension of the communication, but allows researchers from all over the world take part of the information and provide feedback. She notes that preprints are also an opportunity for researchers early in their careers to show what they have done, and can make it easier to reach out with things that are more difficult to publish negative results. There are risks with preprintsMen without peer review, there is the risk that the spread of research that does not measure up, or that draws conclusions that lack support in the data.
Jessica Polka believe that some measure of skepticism is in its place. – A preprint is not the same thing as a peer reviewed article. But it is a preprint does not necessarily mean that it is inferior quality. Peer review is not perfect.
We need to be a bit skeptical about what we read, ” she says.
Another challenge concerns the public’s and the media’s celebration of the preprints. In the rule, select the preprint servers that the article is a preprint that does not have referentgranskats. The meaning of it must be passed on to the readers, says Jessica Polka. Preprints of the incorrect data could have serious consequences, not least when it comes to some medical research. The server bioRxiv check before uploading that the material does not pose a health risk and today permits only certain clinical research articles.
At the Yale School of Medicine developed, however, Medarxiv, a preprint server for the results from clinical research.
Some journals kritiskaNumera allows most magazines to a preprint is put out before the script is sent in for possible publication.
But not all, points out Sara Hägg, associate professor in molecular epidemiology at Karolinska institutet.
– Some journals are critical to preprintet is out there, because they believe that the novelty value then has disappeared.
It must take out before, ” she says. Five years ago, Sara Hägg, no preprints, but today she is often out on the bioRxiv in connection with the manuscript submitted to a journal. – Preprints provides the opportunity to refer to their own works that have not yet come out. It is also a way to as quickly as possible and show other groups what we have done. In recent years they have established databases of preprints or working papers, as they are called in some areas, to the new company. Recently launched, for example, the servers Engrxiv, Socarxiv, and Psyarxiv, for researchers in engineering, social sciences and psychology. Some research funders now allows also the preprints in the applications. Still unusual in humanioraMen in the humanities are preprints still unusual, says Jutta Haider, associate professor and senior lecturer in library and information science at the University of Lund. – Within the humanities it is often the text itself, which is the result.
The text, its wording and argumentation, have a different status than in many other areas of science. You do not want to share it that way, ” she says. That the use of preprints differ between the different research areas she believes, can be explained with varying publiceringstraditioner. Within its own field, she sees no need of a preprint server.
The function of the preprints may be – to facilitate communication between researchers – believes she is going to get in other ways, for example via mailing lists, conferences and institutional seminars.
Jutta Haider have some articles marked with ”preprint” in the university’s own research database. But it is reviewed versions, accepted for publication. She may not think to lay out the text so that it is sent in to the magazine. – Absolutely not! The comments from the peer review, and the change of the text in which they lead to, is a part of the research. It gets better after them, often there is no value in publishing it was before, ” she says. . Text: Sara Nilsson .