The gender goal empty words without incentives 2017-09-19 Sweden is a pioneer in gender equality
Yet we are far from an equal gender distribution among the country’s professors. The sociologist Liisa Husu wondering why Sweden succeeds so well in many other areas, but not in academia. Liisa Husu has been at a Conference in Brussels with Ewora, the European Association for female directors, and stops to a few days at home in Finland before she returns to Örebro University, where she is a professor of gender studies and Director of the Centre for feminist religious studies. When we talk she ponders over why it goes so slow to recruit women to the top services within the Academy. Gender balance at doctorate level is becoming fairly even in large parts of the world, in Sweden is about half of all women who receive their degrees.
But after the dissertation advancing women not as fast as men.
The report She figures, published by the EU every three years, shows that only 21 percent of the professors are women. Sweden is slightly better with 26 percent.
Liisa Husu is surprised that the difference is not greater. — Despite the fact that Sweden for decades have shown the political will to implement equality in academia is the proportion of female professors at about the same level as the EU average, “she said.
The proportion of female professors in the EU is increasing by one percentage point per year, but the trend is not correctly in place everywhere. New data show that the proportion of female professors has decreased by one-third of universities in the United Kingdom. Greater diversity provides higher kvalitetLiisa Husu looks both inside and utomvetenskapliga arguments to increase the proportion of women in top positions.
-Professors leading research and teaching and to create future knowledge. It can be very one-sided if professors are only men or male dominance is great.
The Academy needs the best brains and they are available not only in male bodies.
She believes that research is becoming more innovative and higher quality with greater diversity in management. Students also need both male and female role models. -If the Academy does not recruit more women we will lose talents that would contribute to better science.
Vary with the research field of the appointment to professor represents the culmination of a long career from student to doctoral and post-doctoral positions. It can happen a lot along the way. The pattern varies with the research field.
Women are in a minority at all levels in science and technology. In Sweden, it is an area with many chairs. In the social sciences, there is an even balance between the number of male and female professors. But there are only 14 percent of the country’s professors ‘ services. Liisa Husu thinks the numbers are very interesting: – where most women are, the competition is greatest by position, “she said. Calls for reward or sanction the Swedish Governments have since 1997 formulated equal recruitment target for the Academy. In this year’s regulatory letters have tightened further. To 2030, half of all newly recruited professors be women.
All universities are required to appoint female professors in proportion to today’s share of his doctorate in women in each area. Researchers and teachers with doctoral degrees have increased sharply in Sweden since 2001. Women dominate especially in the fields of medicine and health sciences, social sciences, humanities and the arts.
The men are more in science and technology. Liisa Husu thinks it is good that the Government demands equality, but at the same time calling for some kind of reward or sanction in relation to the results. “we need more effective ways to bring about change, such as financial incentives. Gender equality goals can become empty words if they are not followed up properly.
It easily becomes a grandstanding.
Give women and men the same chansAlla State universities as well as the Chalmers University of technology, on behalf of the Government, moreover, develop a plan for its work on gender mainstreaming in the period 2016-2019.
A further 60 ‘s authorities have previously received the same obligation to give women and men the same power to shape society and their own lives. In education, for example, it is all about offering equal opportunities to career paths as well as counter the gendered study options. Universities reported respective plans in May this year. Liisa Husu notes that the level of ambition vary. –Research on gender in the Academy show that the support from the University management is crucial in order to achieve positive and sustainable change.
Sveriges jämställdhetsparadoxEn comparative European study showed that many male professors have a homemaker who takes care about privacy. Female professors are more often single people.
Swedish data are missing, however, it seems that parts of the Academy remains a male bastion, who cling to old patterns, says Liisa Husu. Science Europe, which is an Association of research funding agencies in the European Union, has recently published practical guidelines to make it easier to combine family life with an academic career.
The Organization recommends, among other things, that the researchers of both genders should be able to take a break in their funding to take parental leave.
They should also be able to work part-time.
Much of it is natural for us in Sweden, but women encounter obstacles here. Colleagues from other countries raised questions about the Swedish jämställdhetsparadoxen when Liisa Husu participated in a Unesco workshop on gender and science in Argentina. Why is Sweden so successful in so many other areas, but not in the Academy? Competition benefits the kvinnorOfficiell Swedish statistics do not differentiate which professor and who have received a professorship in competition with other applicants. The services, however, can offer quite different conditions for research. Some career professors have only 20% working time for research, others may do research full time.
Still there is the possibility to appoint a professor on the side of the ordinary system. Liisa Husu has shown that the corresponding summons procedure in Finland favours men. Women doing better in open competition.
Other studies have shown that transparency and competition favors women. In his research, Liisa Husu interested in precisely the invisible barriers. Women are not as often invited to hold keynote addresses at conferences and symposia, they recruited not as often to research groups and informal networks, their articles will be less cited. Own career no typexempelLiisa however, Husu think her own career is one typical example. She worked for 15 years at the Finnish equivalent of the equal opportunities Ombudsman and the Government’s gender equality unit, where she was responsible for issues of research and higher education. She noticed that it was missing a deeper knowledge of female researchers ‘ conditions.
— I wrote a treatise in the sociology of gender discrimination in the Finnish Academy, had a research position at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies and was later invited as visiting professor in Sweden. When the ordinary professorship was announced I applied and got it. Read also in Curie: Internal blow torch for more female professors Text: Carin Mannberg-Zackari Photo: Ulla-Carin Ekblom .