What you should know about strawberry tongue

Table of Contents

  1. What are the symptoms?
  2. Causes
  3. Kawasaki disease
  4. Scarlet fever
  5. Food or drug allergy
  6. Toxic shock syndrome
  7. Vitamin B12
  8. When to see a doctor
  9. Complications
  10. Kawasaki disease
  11. Scarlet fever
  12. Toxic shock syndrome
  13. Anaphylactic shock
  14. How is it diagnosed?
  15. Treatment
  16. Strawberry tongue vs. glossitis
  17. Takeaway

Symptoms

Causes

Complications

Diagnosis

Treatment

Takeaway

Strawberry tongue is used to describe a tongue that is swollen, and bumpy. Having a strawberry tongue is a symptom of an underlying condition.

When a person has strawberry tongue, their tongue is typically red. It may also be white and appear swollen. The color and the taste bud bumps on the surface may make it look like a strawberry or raspberry.

This article explores the symptoms and underlying conditions that may cause strawberry tongue. It also looks at how to treat the conditions that cause strawberry tongue.

Fast facts on strawberry tongue:

When a person has a strawberry tongue, their tongue looks more bumpy than usual.

Strawberry tongue may be a symptom of a food or drug allergy.

The treatment for strawberry tongue will depend on the underlying cause.

What are the symptoms?

Strawberry on white background to represent strawberry tongueStrawberry tongue is when the tongue is red and bumpy, making it look like the skin of a strawberry.

If a person has a strawberry tongue, their tongue may look:

red or red with white patches

swollen

enlarged

covered in bumps

Their tongue may feel irritated or painful. A person with strawberry tongue may also be experiencing other symptoms.

These are related to the underlying condition that has caused it.

Causes

Some underlying conditions that may cause strawberry tongue are explored below.

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a condition that usually affects children. It causes certain arteries to become inflamed.

As well as a strawberry tongue, Kawasaki disease may cause:

red eyes

high fever

skin rash

skin peeling

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that may develop when a person has strep throat. It most commonly affects children aged 5 to 15.

As well as a strawberry tongue, scarlet fever may cause:

a red rash that covers most of the body

bright red areas in the folds of the skin

a flushed face over the cheeks

high fever

a sore throat

a headache

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Food or drug allergy

Allergic reactions cause inflammation, which is why a person’s tongue may appear enlarged and bumpy.

Antihistamines help to reduce the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Toxic shock syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare complication that has been associated with using tampons and nasal gauze packing.

Contrary to popular belief, simply leaving in a tampon for a long time does not cause TSS.

TSS is usually caused by infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, but TSS also can be caused by the same bacterial species of group A Streptococcus, which causes scarlet fever. The makeup of the tampon allows the bacterium to multiply.

A 2011 study suggested synthetic, higher-absorbency tampons made it easier for the bacterial infection to spread.

As well as a strawberry tongue, TSS may cause the following symptoms to come on suddenly:

high fever

a headache

a sore throat

aches

pains

nausea

vomiting

diarrhea

If a person suspects they may have TSS they should seek emergency treatment. This condition can be life-threatening if a person does not seek treatment.

Vitamin B12

A deficiency in vitamin B12 may cause a strawberry tongue.

Other symptoms of this vitamin deficiency include:

tiredness

weakness

memory problems

trouble balancing

numbness or tingling

glossitis

When to see a doctor

Patient having their tongue and throat inspected,A doctor will be able to diagnose the cause of strawberry tongue.

If a person develops a strawberry tongue, it is a good idea for them to speak to a doctor. A doctor can diagnose the underlying condition.

Some conditions that cause a strawberry tongue are not always severe at first. For example, a strawberry tongue caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency can be dealt with fairly easily.

Other conditions that cause a strawberry tongue may be more serious. TSS and certain allergies can be life threating.

If a person thinks they may have TSS or a severe acute allergic reaction, they should seek emergency treatment.

A severe acute allergic reaction is called anaphylaxis, which can progress to anaphylactic shock. Other symptoms include:

facial and throat swelling

trouble breathing

chest pain

fast heart rate

low blood pressure

Complications

When a person has a swollen tongue, it may make it harder for them to eat. It may also make them more likely to bite their tongue.

If the conditions causing strawberry tongue are left untreated, complications may arise. These conditions include:

Kawasaki disease

If left untreated Kawasaki, disease may cause a coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) and other problems within the heart.

CAA is a weakness with excessive dilation that causes bulging in an artery in the heart. This could increase one’s risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, according to a 2016 study.

Scarlet fever

If left untreated, scarlet fever may lead to a person developing:

rheumatic fever (which can involve the heart, joints, and nervous system)

kidney disease

severe middle ear infection

skin infection

abscesses

lung infection

Toxic shock syndrome

Left untreated, TSS causes the whole body to go into shock. This may cause vital organ damage and could be fatal.

Anaphylactic shock

If a person does not receive treatment, anaphylactic shock can be fatal. This is typically due to circulatory and breathing problems.

How is it diagnosed?

If a person has a strawberry tongue, a doctor will ask them when they first noticed it.

The doctor will then ask questions about any other symptoms. This helps the doctor to determine the underlying cause.

The doctor may order further tests if they need to reach a diagnosis.


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